Auto-de-Fé - A Igreja na inquisição da opinião pública (Portuguese Edition)
But papal authority did not suffice for the organization of the Inquisition. To Rome the Spaniard had never shown very much respect. It was on the secular power that the Spanish Inquisition relied for its efficiency, even as it was to the secular arm that it handed its victims. There, between the castles of Gog and Magog, confined by an enchanted wall, they have multiplied, until now they are numerous enough to fill twenty-four kingdoms.
When Antichrist comes they will break loose and rally around him, as likewise will all the Jews of the Diaspora, for they will regard him as their promised Messiah" i. There was a prolonged struggle at court before the Inquisition was adopted. Ferdinand and Isabella, habitu- ally jealous of papal encroachments, did not at once respond to the papal zeal for the purity of the faith. Modern apologists, says Lea, err in assuming that it was from humanitarian motives that they delayed.
They desired "not the ordinary papal Inquisition, but one which should be under the royal control, and should pour into the royal treasury the resultant confiscations.
He points out that when Innocent VIII renewed Cardinal Torquemada's commission from Spain on March 38, i, it was only "ad nostrum et dictae sedis beneplacitum," whereas in the case of Torque- mada's successors this formula was abandoned. But in a Bull dated April 9 of the same year the pope confirms 1 Fray Alonso evidently derived his story from one of the versions of the Pseudo-Callisthenes. A certified copy of this bull under seal dated July, , was acquired in Madrid just two cen- turies later, with a large number of other documents 1.
The seller stated that they came from the estate of a family whose ancestor had been secretary of the Inquisi- tion. Possibly this was Llorente himself, who in a letter dated December 13, , which was acquired in Paris, explains that he is to return to Madrid, having been expelled from France for publishing books much opposed to the doctrine and ideas of the French Government. The copy was evidently made in connexion with the search for documents by the Suprema to which Lea refers.
Anyhow the Inquisition was first established in Seville, whence many of the Conversos had fled to the lands of the neighbouring nobles " in the expectation that feudal juris- dictions would protect them even against a spiritual court such as that of the Inquisition" i. She left a convent to follow a career of shame, and, when she died in want, directed that her skull should be placed as a warning over the door of her house, where it is still to be seen in the Calle del Artaud near its entrance hard by the Alcazar.
The first tribunal was established at Ciudad-Real in for the province of Toledo, to which city it was transferred two years later, perhaps because the archbishop was specially zealous for the faith. This was a fiendish device to enable such as felt themselves in danger to come forward, confess, and be reconciled to the Church upon terms that they divulged all they knew of other heretics.
Terrorized cowards scrupled not to denounce their nearest and dearest. The testimony thus obtained indicates the careless security in which the Conversos had lived, and allowed their Jewish practices to be known to Christian servants and acquaintances. In the Revue des Etudes Juives, , Mitrani-Sar- mian, in an interesting article, proves the existence of a Hebrew printer in Spain before In that year one Ganso deposed that, when he lived at Montalban, Juan de Lucena used to print Hebrew books there, which he sold in the land of the Moors in Granada.
Lucena's daughters also printed Hebrew books, and five out of the six were prosecuted by the Inquisition. In addition to the authorities quoted in the article there is a reference to Teresa de Lucena, then the widow of Juan de Idrada, in the Gatdlogo de Toledo p. She was condemned in , and the documents of her trial are preserved in the Archivo Histdrico Nacional bundle , No.
The whole question of Hebrew incunables in Spain has yet to be investigated. Copies of only nine such are known to be extant, but the fragments from the Cairo Genizah contain pages from at least as many more, including the Spanish Prayer Book Cituri, i. Most of these must have been destroyed. It is only natural to suppose that the first Hebrew books were printed in Spain before February, , the date of the earliest known Hebrew incunable. The Jews of Spain were in those days wealthier and more intellectual than their Italian brethren. Significantly enough that very book was printed in Reggio di Calabria, at that time part of Spanish Italy, and the character of its type is distinctly Spanish.
Another device of the Inquisition was to summon the Jewish rabbis and require them under penalty of death and confiscation to "place major excommunication on their synagogues, and not remove it until the members should have revealed everything within their knowledge respecting Judaizing Christians " i.
Manuel J. (Coimbra, Portugal)’s review of Auto-De-Fé A Igreja na inquisição da opinião pública
In Seville, Judah Ibn- Verga expatriated himself to avoid compliance with such a demand. This was the famous author of the Shebet Jehuda, whose work was continued and published by his son in Adrianople in Lea gives full details of the establishment of tribunals in the various provinces. He points out how, from the first, the procedure was differen- tiated from that of the Papal Inquisition which had been so effective in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries throughout Europe.
Ferdinand and Isabella intended the Spanish Inquisition to be a national institution strongly organized and owing obedience to the Crown much more than to the Holy See. It had become an affair of State of the first importance, but did not come within the purview of the four royal councils, among whom since the affairs of government were distributed.
Its president was a new official of almost boundless power, the President or Inquisitor-General.
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The Papal Brief appointing Torquemada, the royal choice, has never been found, but it must have been earlier than October 17, Under his guidance the Inquisition rapidly took shape, and extended its organization throughout Spain. It was untiring and remorseless in the pursuit and punishment of apostates. The popes praised Torquemada for his labours. Thus the infamous Borgia, Alexander VI, " assures him in that he cherishes him in the very bowels of affection for his im- mense labours in the exaltation of the faith" i. Torque- mada, though himself an ascetic, dwelt in palaces surrounded by a princely retinue.
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He accumulated vast wealth, but lived in perpetual fear of assassination. It was owing to his zeal that verdicts of acquittal were so infrequent in the early days. He became so mighty that the Curia took alarm, and there were frequent quarrels between him and the papal nominees. Special faculties were required to degrade ecclesiastics condemned by the Inquisition. So long as they were in orders, clerics were exempt from secular jurisdiction, and it was necessary to degrade them before they could be delivered to the civil authorities for burning.
This was a serious impediment, as many Judaizing Conversos were found among clerics. Lea then proceeds to deal with the various " Instrucciones Antiguas " or rules which governed the Inquisitorial Court. The first collective print under Inquisitor-General Manrique was issued in Seville in , of which there is a copy in the Bodleian Library. The only other copy known was found by the writer of these lines at Lima bound up with the manuscript instructions given by Cardinal Espinosa for the appointment of the American Inquisition in The Inquisition soon became autonomous — an imperium in imperio — with all the resources of the State at its disposal.
No wonder its terror spread over the land and thousands sought safety in flight. If the object of the Inquisition had simply been to purify the land of heresy and apostasy, this would have been accomplished as well by expatriation as by burning or reconciling, but such was not the policy which governed the sovereigns, and edicts were issued forbidding all of Jewish lineage from leaving Spain, and imposing a fine of five hundred florins on shipmasters conveying them away.
This was not, as it might seem to us, wanton cruelty, although it was harsh, inasmuch as it assumed guilt on mere suspicion. To say nothing of the confiscations, which were defrauded of the portable property carried away by the fugitives, we must bear in mind that, to the orthodox of the period, heresy was a positive crime, nay, the greatest of crimes, punishable as such by laws in force for centuries, and the heretic was to be prevented from escaping its penalties as much as a murderer or a thief i.
Again, in a the Inquisition obtained a royal edict ordering " that no ship-captain or merchant should trans- port across seas any New Christian, whether Jewish or Moorish, without a royal licence," and officers were sent to the seaports to arrest any such i. He bids the inquisitor remember that the only object of the Inquisition is the salvation of souls. The king's correspondence shows what a sincere bigot he was. After witnessing the auto de U in Valladolid in September, , he writes to express the great pleasure which it had given him as a means of advancing the honour and glory of God and the exaltation of the Holy Catholic faith.
Inquisitors were in the habit of sending to him, as well as to the Suprema, " Relaciones " or reports of the autos they celebrated, and he would acknowledge receipt in terms of high satisfaction. A quarter of a century elapsed before there was any serious resistance to the Inquisition.
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Lucero the inquisitor made himself prominent by his excesses at Cordova, and produced a veritable reign of terror, and the favour shown to him seems to have been due to the pecuniary results of his activity. While elsewhere the confiscations which had at first contributed largely to the royal treasury were diminishing, their productiveness at Cordova rapidly grew. Lea shrewdly suggests that redistribution of offices was an element which at first reconciled the Old Christians to the Inquisition. These had been largely in the hands of Conversos.
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They had to vacate them, and the vacancies thus created passed into the hands of the receivers, and were distributed by the sovereigns as favour or policy might dictate. The Conversos, realizing that it was useless to appeal to Ferdinand, had recourse to Philip, whose wife, Juana, Ferdinand's daughter, governed Castile for him as titular queen. They were aware i. After Isabella's death, Lucero saw a chance of striking at the highest quarry yet aimed at, Talavera, the veteran archbishop of Granada. Though he had a Jewish strain in his blood, he was reverenced as the pattern and exemplar of all Christian virtues.
Lucero selected a woman whom he had tortured on the charge of being a Jewish prophetess and maintaining a synagogue in her house. He threatened her with further torture unless she testified that she had seen things he suggested in a room at Talavera's palace, imputing Judaism to the archbishop and his whole family and household.
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As bishops were outside the direct jurisdiction of the Suprema, Ferdinand was induced to apply to Rome for authorization to prosecute Talavera. The papal commission for his trial was dis- patched in June, , but meantime a court intrigue gave the Conversos a short respite. Queen Juana, whose story, says Lea, "is one of the saddest in the annals of royalty, and her treatment by her father, husband, and son is a libel on human nature," was locked up as insane, her husband Philip assumed the government, and proving amenable to the golden arguments of the Conversos, opposed the Inquisition i.
Lucero tried to anticipate his fall by burning all his prisoners so as to get them out of the way, but after an auto de fie" arranged for the purpose had been announced, there came orders from the sovereigns which fortunately prevented the holocaust, and Lucero and some of his colleagues were removed from Cordova. This triumph of the Conversos was short-lived, for the sudden death of Philip enabled Deza to restore Lucero to power.
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Pope Julius II was appealed to in vain. He wrote Deza that the Jews pretending to be Christians who had dared to rise against the Inquisition must be exterminated root and branch. Political intrigues resulted in the famous Bible Cardinal Ximenes, as president of a " Congregacidn Cat61ica " or Royal Commission, pro- nouncing sentence on Valladolid in July, , restoring the honour of Castile and Andalusia which had been so deeply compromised by the pretended revelations extorted by Lucero, and declaring that there was no ground for the asserted existence of synagogues, the preaching of sermons, and the assembling of missionaries of Judaism.